Guru Nanak’s Mission

25 Mar

This month, we are reading the article, “Guru Nanak and his Mission” by Principal Teja Singh. This article is available on the Sikh Coalition website. The link to the article is posted below along with links to other articles that accompany the main reading.

Readings:

1. Guru Nanak and his Mission (Prin. Teja Singh) (Main Reading)

2. Founder of a World Religion (S. Kapur Singh)

Sikh Research Institute’s Response

17 Mar

Sikh Research Institute’ Response:

Sikhs Appreciate Comprehensive Sojhi Curriculum

Mandhir Singh, principal of Bridgewater Khalsa School, NJ, speaking of the Sojhi curriculum says “Several of our teachers and separately parents have studied the Sojhi coursework over the past year and a half and have been very pleased thus far. We intend to continue implementing Sojhi at Bridgewater Khalsa School.”

Recently, Sikh Research Institute (SikhRI) and its Sojhi curriculum have been questioned by a handful of individuals who may not have had an opportunity to understand the facts and the spirit behind the development of this curriculum. Unfortunately, misinformation has been circulated saying that SikhRI has changed the ardas and modified the Dohre. There have also been allegations that parents of children at Khalsa School Gurdwara Sahib Fremont, CA have removed their children from the school because of opposition to the Sojhi curriculum. There have been remarks circulating about SikhRI’s facilitators not respecting the Guru and not being open to questions. None of these allegations are true.

Jasmine Kaur, Sojhi’s project lead and SikhRI’s Director of Education states “we neither have the authority to change the Ardas nor have we done so. SikhRI maintains the integrity of all its documents through applying Gurmat-based inspiration and developing them in line with the Panthic Sikh Rahit Maryada”.
Continue reading

Time for an open discussion

7 Mar

Recently, I received an email regarding an excerpt of a book that is part of the syllabus taught to sixth and seventh grade children during Sikh Sunday School. This section was written by the Sikh Research Institute, a leading think tank that presents research, views, and education to the Sikh community at large. This chapter has attracted some controversy. It covers the historical context in which dohre (Aagiya Payee Akaal Ki) was composed and its significance. Here are the links where you can find the excerpts:

http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&attid=0.2&thid=11fdc88aa99eb203&mt=application%2Fpdf

http://docs.google.com/gview?a=v&attid=0.3&thid=11fdc88aa99eb203&mt=application%2Fpdf

We invite you to share your knowledge, articles, and views on this topic. This post is intended to be a platform for open discussion on this issue that has recently emerged. Given the nature of this topic, we humbly request you to submit only NON-judgemental feedback. However, we sincerely welcome differing views and would love to hear from you!!

Next Reading: A Bitter Harvest

16 Feb

We have selected “A Bitter Harvest,” written by the Institute for Food and Development First/Food First, an organization that analyzes “the root causes of global hunger, poverty, and ecological degradation and developing solutions in partnership with movements working for social change.” This paper provides an excellent introduction as to the origins and causes of the current agricultural crisis in Punjab. Some of you may have heard about the rise in farmer suicides in India, which I suspect is a problem in other countries as well. What many people do not know is that this is a SIGNIFICANT problem in Punjab and has been overlooked. We will be looking at how factors such as debt, decreasing crop yields, decrease in prices, and dowry are significant contributors to farmer suicides in Punjab. What’s interesting is that the author of this paper is not a Sikh! The supplemental readings include some news articles that refute these assertions. You can download the paper and the supplemental readings below. A Bitter Harvest is not a long reading, so we encourage all of you to read this paper and even better, come to the meeting! Please feel free to give your feedback via online! Let us know if you have any readings to recommend.

This Month’s Reading:

Supplemental Readings (Optional)

Punjab Agriculture

Farmer Suicides in Punjab (Background Information)

Farmer Suicides and Agriculture in India

Pesticides and It’s Effects

Water Crisis

Female Infanticides

Notes from Second Meeting

20 Jan

Prof Puran Singh’s poetic, lyrical, and metaphorical style is the book’s strength as well as its weakness. Strength because those in sync with Gurbani will find the style a natural accompaniment to that of Gurbani: a metaphor to explain a metaphor. However, those like me struggling to be in sync with Gurbani but still stuck at the mental or intellectual level will find the style an impediment at times. Puran Singh’s constant switching between speaking from his experiences, his opinions and from his reading of the Gurbani is very fluid. So fluid that at times when he makes a declarative statement, which he often does, it leaves me pondering about the substantiation of the statement. Is it from Gurbani? Is it his opinion? Or is it from his experiences? Does he give examples? Does he appeal to our feelings or our reasoning? I believe he employs all of these.

Different readings
A clue to reading his book can be gained from his take on reading Gurbani. In an earlier book (Sisters of the Spinning Wheel), he interprets Japuji Sahib. He does it again in his book, Spirit Born People, but with some differences. Acknowledging the differences in his two readings of Japuji, he claims that there are infinite readings of the Gurbani.

“Some of you will say this is not a translation of JapuJi, True, it is not the million readings we can have of it, but it is one of those readings. Music has an infinite number of moods, and meanings…(pg. 98-99).” “The Guru’s sayings cannot be exhausted by any amount of interpretations. A million new and varied interpretations leave them as fresh as ever. They are truly creations of art and any one of us can look at them and have his heart full of meaning and direction and love and miracle and what ever he may desire.” (pg 77)

The readings of Gurbani vary over both space and time. He doubts whether, should he try, he can once again come up with the same reading as the one he had in Spirit Born People. (Reminds me of the saying, “you cannot step in the same river twice”. But that is about the nature of everything in flux.)

On Guru and God
It was Harvinder who drew my attention to Puran Singh’s atypical usage of pronouns for Guru. When referring to the Guru, Puran Singh addresses the Guru in pronouns starting in caps, for example, He, Him, His, etc. Now this is the style that writers mostly use for referring to God. So is Puran Singh equating Guru with God? It seems so and then his style of writing about the Guru is consistent with his conception of Guru. (So far, I haven’t yet come across any other writer using that style.)

On Recitation
Bani is to be understood experientially, not intellectually. Puran Singh says he came a long distance since trying in vain to understand intellectually the significance of reciting Bani. But on experiencing the constant recital of His Name, the whole purpose of recitation made sense to him.

“What is the use of repeating His Name? It is a mechanical, tiresome task. To the restless intellect it is just so, perhaps. To the poet, how beautiful is the constant foot-fall of men who go beating a track in the trackless forest, those with soft flesh feet repeating the rhythm of going on and cutting a direction. As the feet of men fall and beat a path so my lips repeating his name cut a direction for my soul.” (pg. 59).

On Ideal State
His political-economic views on the form and governance of state are, well, um…interesting. He does not hold high regard for democracy. Not for Bolshevism either. Defends capitalism. Acknowledges the demerits of Aristocracy but regards it more useful than democracy. “(Aristocracy and democracy) are both good when good and bad when bad, the latter hopelessly so always.” [42]. And his concept of democracy has Guru at the center as the equalizing force. “It was democracy by obedience to Him. All equally obeyed the Great Will. All lost themselves in Love; no one asserted his i-ness. All dissolved themselves in Him and out of Him came out as new men. Without the Guru this democracy cannot be maintained.” [38].

He offers a sympathetic defense of capitalism from the attacks of socialism and Bolshevism.

“A man who is successful in his small blind way has some worth in him; it is not to be talked away as something ignoble. … The rich man is as much a medium of the expression of nature’s hidden purposes as the poor. So the great seers, unlike the Bolshevist and the socialist, do not rush to seek a solution of this problem in the destruction of the rich as a class, for the rich are as worthy of their pity as the poor.” [42]

On Art
My favorite chapter was the one on Arts. What is the kind of art that one should aspire for? What kind of art is genuine as opposed to mere imitation? (One that touches, that transforms people.) More on this topic later as I do not have the book on hand to provide the relevant quotes.

One other part that caught my interest was Puran Singh’s conceptualization (and here I would concur with Inderpreet who too was not sure whether this conceptualization can be traced to Bani) about the three states of existence: bread, woman and bridgegroom. Each label is a symbol:

“Bread for the physical needs of man, the animal; Woman for beauty, the mental need of man, –of the intellectual half-man on the way to self-realization; Bridegroom for the Guru or the Personal God, the spiritual need of man, –of the angel whose two wings of flight are the mind and the body. … Man the animal, cannot live without Bread. Man, the mind, cannot be without Woman. And man, the soul, is dead without the Guru. … Bread ceases to be reality where ‘Woman’ becomes reality and ‘Woman’ ceases to be reality where ‘Guru’ becomes it.” [36]

Given Organizational Behavior as the field of my work I found this section particularly interesting. It reminded me of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. However, there were a couple of things I found problematic. This section can be best understood as Puran Singh’s conceptualization and not as something that he quotes from Bani. Secondly, in the section that discusses Woman, he is specific that he uses woman as a symbolic name for culture, but his switching between its symbolic and literal usage left me confused at times.

Veiled and the Unveiled Woman
Another interesting aspect of the book is Puran Singh’s views on women. It was Supreet who first drew my attention to his concept of the veiled and unveiled woman. He decries both veiling and unveiling: both deny the woman a personhood as each views her through the lens of sex difference. “But if veils accentuate this sex difference or if unveiling does the same, both are unholy” [85]. I came across a paper “Reinforcing Ideologies about Women” in which the author has a harsh commentary of Prof. Puran Singh’s article “Woman” that appears in an undergraduate text for Punjab University students. From what I read about the article in the commentary, I believe this article is taken from the book Spirit Born People. (I am curious to hear from Sikh women their responses to both Puran Singh’s article and the critical commentary.)

Conclusion
The book seeks to draw a contrast between the understanding obtained from intellect, from methods of logic and reasoning, and the understanding obtained from feelings. One way to look at the book is as a piece of art. It is an artist’s expression of his feelings. Some artists express themselves in paint, clay, or music; Puran Singh did it in words. The book is an expression of his relationship with Sikhi, with Bani. In writing this book, perhaps Puran Singh was attempting to create the art he thinks we all should aspire for: the only genuine art is that which moves people, rest all is imitation.

So did the book move me? Yes, it did. Despite the analyzing part of my mind holding itself back stubbornly, and despite what it saw as ‘contradictions’ in the book, the book did nudge me an elbow in the ribs every few pages; it did add a spring to my step.

The book can be summed up as a melody of tabla and nagarha: the nagarha beats are Puran Singh’s declarative statements (e.g., “concepts are dead matter”, “the only history is that of the soul”) and his tabla beats provide the explanatory context for the nagarha beats. The composition of this melody renders it difficult at times to distinguish between the two beats: was that nagarha or was it tabla in the crescendo?

Second Meeting: A Productive Engagement

20 Jan

I have been thinking about our last book club meeting in which we discussed the book, Spirit Born People by Prof. Puran Singh. We are now getting better at this. This time we had a moderator – Supreet – who even got us some printed notes (which rhymes with ‘quotes’) that she used as discussion points. This time we also had Inderpreet – finally! – and between those two, we had people who had read that book several times over. This time Harvinder and I read the whole book. And this time we had Simran eluding the discussion by bribing us with awesome bread rolls. The discussion was helpful: it clarified some doubts but also raised more questions that I have been thinking about since. (putting them up in my next post).

That evening, despite having formally wrapped up the discussion, despite the impending snowstorm, and despite being assured that we didn’t really need the pretext of a discussion to continue gorging on those bread rolls, we continued our discussion well into the evening, which was good but – this I realized later – we missed the opportunity to do Rehras Sahib together. The discussion also spurred Inderpreet to update his blog. And as a breakthrough, it has also subsequently spawned off a discussion about getting the infant Sikh book clubs in different cities of the US  to collaborate and coordinate on their readings and resources.

After reading the book, Spirit Born people, I must have been in high spirits, even mistaking my flight from NY to Bombay for a spiritual flight. And on a spiritual flight, one is moved to share with others the bliss of experiencing the higher ground. Perhaps this subconscious desire must have been the reason I left that book in the plane for other elevated souls to read. (Some may simply say that I forgot the book in the plane; either way, Supreet, now I owe you a copy of Spirit Born People.)

Sharing some notes from our discussion in my next post.

One of My Favorite Quotes

8 Jan

There is no question that Professor Puran Singh has a gift for words, not to mention he is considered one of the greatest spiritual geniuses of his time. Here is just one of the his quotes (among many) that I love:

“Thus, to the Guru’s mind, man is normally and frankly physical, transcending which is he purely intellectual, brilliant, creative, artisitic, aesthetic. Transcending all this intellectual self of his he is mostly intuitional, spiritual. The highest type is he who has body and mind as mere shadows left, using them as mere instruments, tools or energies of his. And he is the one who, above all has the illumined soul with its revolving Universe with the Guru in the centre and shining in him is that wonder-woven starry universe of his own, separate, beautiful subjective world of gods. ….Those who, in their minds, even thing of a greater God than the Guru, do not know what personal passion for the personal God is.” [pg 48]

What are your thoughts on this quote? Any takers? Any quote that you would like to share?

Finally, a serious disagreement!

2 Jan

Finally, a serious disagreement!

While Sarbjeet’s blog regarding Professor Puran Singh’s skepticism of analysis is quite impressive and compelling, I must say that I cannot disagree with him more! From my understanding, Professor Puran Singh is not questioning analysis itself, but rather the kind and purpose of analysis that most of us do.

In fact, Professor Puran Singh did do his fare share of analysis. He at first courageously rejects the faith that he inherited from his parents, searches other religions to quench his spiritual thirst, and comes back to square one: Sikhi. His actions clearly showed a personality that questions traditions, beliefs, and even religions. However, it was his journey of soul-searching and acquiring knowledge that leads him to a simple yet deep discovery:

“Saach Kaho Sun Layo Sabhai, Jin Prem Keeo Tin Hee Prabh Payo.”

This is the simple truth that he repeats again and again in this book. So, what kind of knowledge and thought does he deem as worthless?

Arbitrary beliefs and analysis for the sake of analysis: (i.e. How the world was created or what exactly happens to the soul after death –heaven, hell, reincarnation? Even the smartest Sikhs will admit on not knowing what Sikhi says, and the smarter ones will not even care.)

Actions performed for the sake of actions. (Fasting, ritualistic behaviors, etc)

A man who has acquired a depth of knowledge on other religions only presents and praises those religious figures which have a loving relationship with God. The kind of love that is inexplicably sincere and deep. All knowledge stems from this truth and all other knowledge is discarded.

You had mentioned the importance of analyzing and understanding bani. That is very true, but the purpose of analyzing bani is not to gain knowledge, but to build a relationship with Vaheguru the only way we know: understanding and reciting His bani. It is the feeling that we are striving to ignite and keep alive. If you notice, all of the shabads and saloks do two things:

  1. Only through love (and hence — feeling) can we attain Vaheguru
  2. How some our actions or beliefs either reject or support this

Cow-dung on the Wall

29 Dec

Puran Singh was a scientist by training and profession (more about his work here). Even as he continued his research and publication on matters of industrial chemistry, he wrote on matters of the soul and of spiritual progress in the society. Those who read his works on spirituality see him as a mystic and a poet. Reading the book for this month, I am looking forward to know about his world-view: do science and spirituality intersect to create a common ground? Or are they two parallel universes of reality?

The first few pages of the book give a glimpse of his views on epistemology. On the topic of knowledge – and we must remember that as a scientist, he was into ‘knowledge production – he writes:

“Beware of the magic of Brahmanical philosophic analysis of everything, even the most secret and complex infinites of faith, life and love. It killed them, it shall kill you. Analysis is the opposite pole of feeling. I worship my mother, I love my wife, but what would they be if I wished to know them by analysis!” [16]

As per Puran Singh, to know something or someone by analysis is the opposite of knowing someone by feeling, by experiencing that something or someone. This becomes all the more pertinent when that something is a ‘state-of-being’ or the being itself. Matters of the soul “are beyond our analyzing intellect”, he writes.

Analysis of information (coming either from experiments based on interventions or field studies based on observations) is the core of scientific research. It involves identifying the elements of a system and the relationship between those elements. It is analysis that makes the information meaningful. Than merely knowing that A and B happened, it is more meaningful to know the nature of relationship between A and B: did A cause B? Or are A and B correlated?

Why this skepticism about analysis? Isn’t Bani all about causal relationships? Bani is both descriptive and normative: it explains why things are the way they are (for example, why people are unhappy) and also suggests desirable goals and the means to achieve those goals. And isn’t it knowledge of causal relationships that underlie those explanations and advice?

Furthermore, Puran Singh writes:

“True knowledge is not knowing, but being. Knowing is always wrong, being is always right. What I gather round me does not confine me. What I produce out of me does not exhaust me. Knowledge does not add anything to me. Ignorance does not diminish me.” [25]

Language, while enabling us to think and communicate, also restricts our thought and communication. When I think of a person in a wheelchair as being confined to the wheelchair, I forget that what is confinement to me could be freedom to that person. The wheelchair offers her freedom from an otherwise confined world. A door opens us to something, but it also locks us away from other things.

Likewise with language (but the other way round):  Does language confine our expression while seeming to offer us a medium to communicate, to express, to think? Also, isn’t the Bani an attempt to also describe the indescribable tale or unspoken speech (akath katha) and praises about Guru’s glory even while acknowledging that “gur ki mahima kathan na jayi”? When I read the following,

auAw kI mihmw kQnu n jweI ]1] [392] or qw kI giq imiq kQnu n jwie ]3] [393]

I wonder, is it something about the Creator, or the Guru, or the Saints that cannot be described? Or is it something about language itself that renders the experience (or the understanding gained) as indescribable? Or is it that language is adequate to describe the characteristics of the Guru but that experiencing the Guru renders one wonder struck, speechless?

Asking these questions reminds me of the conversation I had with the Nihang Chief at the Gurudwara Mata Sahib Kaur Ji in Nanded, India. My brother, who was with me on that trip, always made it a point to stop at this Gurudwara and wish the Nihang Singh a heartful gur fateh. On this occasion, as my brother and I took leave, the Nihang Singh asked us to visit the Gurudwara soon againcowdung-wall.

“I can’t,” I said. “I will be away for quite a while now. I am going to the US for my PhD.”

The Nihang Singh smiled. He had a twinkle in his eyes and his eyes were smiling too. I could discern the smiles clearly through his glasses.

“In that case, don’t forget to do your nitnem. Be selective about what you read. And importantly, don’t become like the philosopher who, when he went to a village in Punjab, stood transfixed in front of a hut for several hours, He stood there watching the wall on which lumps of cowdung were drying in the sun to be later used a fuel. When someone asked him what was it about the wall that he found so fascinating, the philosopher replied that he was still trying to figure out how the cows managed to get the dung on the wall and  that too in such a perfect pattern.”

The Nihang Singh was still sporting his knowing smile as we left. I’ll be seeing him in a couple of months when I go to India and visit Gurudwara Mata Sahib Kaur Ji. I won’t be surprised to be greeted with the same smile and the twinkle in his eyes asking me, “So have you finally figured out how the cows … ?”

December Book – Spirit Born People

17 Dec

spirit-born-people This month, we are reading the book, Spirit Born People, written by Prof. Puran Singh.

Here are links to some articles on the net that provide some information about the book and the author.

About the Book:

1) Book Review by Laurie Bolger (source: sikhchic.com)

2) Some notes about the book (put together by Sarbjeet from our 2nd meeting of the book club)

[For those who are planning to buy the book, you may want to check its availability and pricing at http://www.sacha-sauda.ca (they usually have this book and carry it at the lowest prices that I have come across. For example, this book is priced at $3.00 on sachasauda whereas it is around $18.00 on several other book-selling websites. No, I am not in any way associated with this organization.]

prof-puran-singh-bw

Also, Prof. Puran Singh seems to have led quite an interesting life: his encounter with Buddhism in Japan, with the American poet, Walt Whitman, with Swami Ram Tirth, with Bhai Vir Singh, his training as a scientist and his prolific writing on Sikhism. Wow! A lot going on there.

About the Author:

1) Puran Singh: A Complete Man (source: World Sikh News)

2) Prof. Puran Singh (source: SikhiWiki. Also has the historic letter that he wrote to Sir John Simon in 1928]

3) Life and Works of Prof. Puran Singh (paper written by H.S. Virk and published in Indian Journal of History of Science. For those interested to learn more about his endeavors in science.)

Some Other Works by Prof. Puran Singh:

1) The Ten Masters (Read online, source: allaboutsikhs.com)

2) Sisters of the Spinning Wheel (Download in pdf format, source Archive.org   Thanks, Arun)

3) Spirit of the Sikhs (part 1) (Download in pdf format, source: sikhcoalition.org)

4) The Sikh Nation (Download in pdf format, source: Sikh Religious Society)

5) Anecdotes from Sikh History (Download in pdf format, source Archive.org   Thanks, Arun)